modern slot machines

Newer machines often allow players to choose from a selection of denominations on a splash screen or menu. A bonus is a special feature of the particular game theme, which is activated when certain symbols appear in a winning combination.

Bonuses and the number of bonus features vary depending upon the game. In other bonus rounds, the player is presented with several items on a screen from which to choose. As the player chooses items, a number of credits is revealed and awarded. Some bonuses use a mechanical device, such as a spinning wheel, that works in conjunction with the bonus to display the amount won.

A candle is a light on top of the slot machine. It flashes to alert the operator that change is needed, hand pay is requested or a potential problem with the machine.

It can be lit by the player by pressing the "service" or "help" button. A coin hopper is a container where the coins that are immediately available for payouts are held. When a certain preset coin capacity is reached, a coin diverter automatically redirects, or "drops", excess coins into a "drop bucket" or "drop box".

Unused coin hoppers can still be found even on games that exclusively employ Ticket-In, Ticket-Out technology, as a vestige.

The credit meter is a display of the amount of money or number of credits on the machine. On mechanical slot machines, this is usually a seven-segment display , but video slot machines typically use stylized text that suits the game's theme and user interface.

The drop bucket or drop box is a container located in a slot machine's base where excess coins are diverted from the hopper. Typically, a drop bucket is used for low-denomination slot machines and a drop box is used for high-denomination slot machines.

A drop box contains a hinged lid with one or more locks whereas a drop bucket does not contain a lid. The contents of drop buckets and drop boxes are collected and counted by the casino on a scheduled basis.

Free spins are a common form of bonus, where a series of spins are automatically played at no charge at the player's current wager. Free spins are usually triggered via a scatter of at least three designated symbols with the number of spins dependent on the number of symbols that land. Some games allow the free spins bonus to "retrigger", which adds additional spins on top of those already awarded.

There is no theoretical limit to the number of free spins obtainable. Some games may have other features that can also trigger over the course of free spins. A hand pay refers to a payout made by an attendant or at an exchange point "cage" , rather than by the slot machine itself.

A hand pay occurs when the amount of the payout exceeds the maximum amount that was preset by the slot machine's operator. Usually, the maximum amount is set at the level where the operator must begin to deduct taxes. A hand pay could also be necessary as a result of a short pay.

Hopper fill slip is a document used to record the replenishment of the coin in the coin hopper after it becomes depleted as a result of making payouts to players. The slip indicates the amount of coin placed into the hoppers, as well as the signatures of the employees involved in the transaction, the slot machine number and the location and the date.

MEAL book M achine e ntry a uthorization l og is a log of the employee's entries into the machine. Low-level or slant-top slot machines include a stool so the player may sit down.

Stand-up or upright slot machines are played while standing. Optimal play is a payback percentage based on a gambler using the optimal strategy in a skill-based slot machine game.

Payline is a line that crosses through one symbol on each reel, along which a winning combination is evaluated. Classic spinning reel machines usually have up to nine paylines, while video slot machines may have as many as one hundred. Paylines could be of various shapes horizontal, vertical, oblique, triangular, zigzag, etc.

Persistent state refers to passive features on some slot machines, some of which able to trigger bonus payouts or other special features if certain conditions are met over time by players on that machine.

Roll-up is the process of dramatizing a win by playing sounds while the meters count up to the amount that has been won. Short pay refers to a partial payout made by a slot machine, which is less than the amount due to the player. This occurs if the coin hopper has been depleted as a result of making earlier payouts to players.

The remaining amount due to the player is either paid as a hand pay or an attendant will come and refill the machine. A scatter is a pay combination based on occurrences of a designated symbol landing anywhere on the reels, rather than falling in sequence on the same payline.

A scatter pay usually requires a minimum of three symbols to land, and the machine may offer increased prizes or jackpots depending on the number that land. Scatters are frequently used to trigger bonus games, such as free spins with the number of spins multiplying based on the number of scatter symbols that land.

The scatter symbol usually cannot be matched using wilds, and some games may require the scatter symbols to appear on consecutive reels in order to pay.

On some multiway games, scatter symbols still pay in unused areas. Taste is a reference to the small amount often paid out to keep a player seated and continuously betting. Only rarely will machines fail to pay even the minimum out over the course of several pulls.

Tilt is a term derived from electromechanical slot machines' " tilt switches ", which would make or break a circuit when they were tilted or otherwise tampered with that triggered an alarm.

While modern machines no longer have tilt switches, any kind of technical fault door switch in the wrong state, reel motor failure, out of paper, etc. is still called a "tilt". A theoretical hold worksheet is a document provided by the manufacturer for every slot machine that indicates the theoretical percentage the machine should hold based on the amount paid in.

The worksheet also indicates the reel strip settings, number of coins that may be played, the payout schedule, the number of reels and other information descriptive of the particular type of slot machine.

Volatility or variance refers to the measure of risk associated with playing a slot machine. A low-volatility slot machine has regular but smaller wins, while a high-variance slot machine has fewer but bigger wins.

Weight count is an American term referring to the total value of coins or tokens removed from a slot machine's drop bucket or drop box for counting by the casino's hard count team through the use of a weigh scale.

Wild symbols substitute for most other symbols in the game similarly to a joker card , usually excluding scatter and jackpot symbols or offering a lower prize on non-natural combinations that include wilds.

How jokers behave are dependent on the specific game and whether the player is in a bonus or free games mode. Sometimes wild symbols may only appear on certain reels, or have a chance to "stack" across the entire reel. Each machine has a table that lists the number of credits the player will receive if the symbols listed on the pay table line up on the pay line of the machine.

Some symbols are wild and can represent many, or all, of the other symbols to complete a winning line. Especially on older machines, the pay table is listed on the face of the machine, usually above and below the area containing the wheels. On video slot machines, they are usually contained within a help menu, along with information on other features.

Historically, all slot machines used revolving mechanical reels to display and determine results. Although the original slot machine used five reels, simpler, and therefore more reliable, three reel machines quickly became the standard.

This limited the manufacturer's ability to offer large jackpots since even the rarest event had a likelihood of 0. Although the number of symbols eventually increased to about 22, allowing 10, combinations, [20] this still limited jackpot sizes as well as the number of possible outcomes.

In the s, however, slot machine manufacturers incorporated electronics into their products and programmed them to weight particular symbols. Thus the odds of losing symbols appearing on the payline became disproportionate to their actual frequency on the physical reel.

A symbol would only appear once on the reel displayed to the player, but could, in fact, occupy several stops on the multiple reel. In , Inge Telnaes received a patent for a device titled, "Electronic Gaming Device Utilizing a Random Number Generator for Selecting the Reel Stop Positions" US Patent , [21] which states: "It is important to make a machine that is perceived to present greater chances of payoff than it actually has within the legal limitations that games of chance must operate.

With microprocessors now ubiquitous, the computers inside modern slot machines allow manufacturers to assign a different probability to every symbol on every reel. To the player, it might appear that a winning symbol was "so close", whereas in fact the probability is much lower.

In the s in the U. These used a number of features to ensure the payout was controlled within the limits of the gambling legislation. As a coin was inserted into the machine, it could go either directly into the cashbox for the benefit of the owner or into a channel that formed the payout reservoir, with the microprocessor monitoring the number of coins in this channel.

The drums themselves were driven by stepper motors, controlled by the processor and with proximity sensors monitoring the position of the drums. A "look-up table" within the software allows the processor to know what symbols were being displayed on the drums to the gambler.

This allowed the system to control the level of payout by stopping the drums at positions it had determined. If the payout channel had filled up, the payout became more generous; if nearly empty, the payout became less so thus giving good control of the odds.

Video slot machines do not use mechanical reels, but use graphical reels on a computerized display. As there are no mechanical constraints on the design of video slot machines, games often use at least five reels, and may also use non-standard layouts. This greatly expands the number of possibilities: a machine can have 50 or more symbols on a reel, giving odds as high as million to 1 against — enough for even the largest jackpot.

As there are so many combinations possible with five reels, manufacturers do not need to weight the payout symbols although some may still do so.

Instead, higher paying symbols will typically appear only once or twice on each reel, while more common symbols earning a more frequent payout will appear many times. Video slot machines usually make more extensive use of multimedia , and can feature more elaborate minigames as bonuses.

Modern cabinets typically use flat-panel displays , but cabinets using larger curved screens which can provide a more immersive experience for the player are not uncommon. Video slot machines typically encourage the player to play multiple "lines": rather than simply taking the middle of the three symbols displayed on each reel, a line could go from top left to the bottom right or any other pattern specified by the manufacturer.

As each symbol is equally likely, there is no difficulty for the manufacturer in allowing the player to take as many of the possible lines on offer as desired — the long-term return to the player will be the same.

The difference for the player is that the more lines they play, the more likely they are to get paid on a given spin because they are betting more. To avoid seeming as if the player's money is simply ebbing away whereas a payout of credits on a single-line machine would be bets and the player would feel they had made a substantial win, on a line machine, it would only be five bets and not seem as significant , manufacturers commonly offer bonus games, which can return many times their bet.

The player is encouraged to keep playing to reach the bonus: even if they are losing, the bonus game could allow them to win back their losses. This is known as the "theoretical payout percentage" or RTP, "return to player". The minimum theoretical payout percentage varies among jurisdictions and is typically established by law or regulation.

The winning patterns on slot machines — the amounts they pay and the frequencies of those payouts — are carefully selected to yield a certain fraction of the money paid to the "house" the operator of the slot machine while returning the rest to the players during play.

Within some EGM development organizations this concept is referred to simply as "par". Play now! A slot machine's theoretical payout percentage is set at the factory when the software is written. Changing the payout percentage after a slot machine has been placed on the gaming floor requires a physical swap of the software or firmware , which is usually stored on an EPROM but may be loaded onto non-volatile random access memory NVRAM or even stored on CD-ROM or DVD , depending on the capabilities of the machine and the applicable regulations.

Based on current technology, this is a time-consuming process and as such is done infrequently. Other jurisdictions, including Nevada, randomly audit slot machines to ensure that they contain only approved software. Historically, many casinos, both online and offline, have been unwilling to publish individual game RTP figures, making it impossible for the player to know whether they are playing a "loose" or a "tight" game.

Since the turn of the century, some information regarding these figures has started to come into the public domain either through various casinos releasing them—primarily this applies to online casinos—or through studies by independent gambling authorities.

The return to player is not the only statistic that is of interest. The probabilities of every payout on the pay table is also critical. For example, consider a hypothetical slot machine with a dozen different values on the pay table. However, the probabilities of getting all the payouts are zero except the largest one.

Also, most people would not win anything, and having entries on the paytable that have a return of zero would be deceptive. As these individual probabilities are closely guarded secrets, it is possible that the advertised machines with high return to player simply increase the probabilities of these jackpots.

The added advantage is that these large jackpots increase the excitement of the other players. The table of probabilities for a specific machine is called the Probability and Accounting Report or PAR sheet, also PARS commonly understood as Paytable and Reel Strips.

Mathematician Michael Shackleford revealed the PARS for one commercial slot machine, an original International Gaming Technology Red White and Blue machine. This game, in its original form, is obsolete, so these specific probabilities do not apply. He only published the odds after a fan of his sent him some information provided on a slot machine that was posted on a machine in the Netherlands.

The psychology of the machine design is quickly revealed. There are 13 possible payouts ranging from to 2, The payout comes every 8 plays.

The payout comes every 33 plays, whereas the payout comes every plays. Most players assume the likelihood increases proportionate to the payout. The one mid-size payout that is designed to give the player a thrill is the payout. It is programmed to occur an average of once every plays.

The payout is high enough to create excitement, but not high enough that it makes it likely that the player will take their winnings and abandon the game. In contrast the payout occurs only on average of once every 6, plays.

The player who continues to feed the machine is likely to have several mid-size payouts, but unlikely to have a large payout. He quits after he is bored or has exhausted his bankroll. Despite their confidentiality, occasionally a PAR sheet is posted on a website.

They have limited value to the player, because usually a machine will have 8 to 12 different possible programs with varying payouts. In addition, slight variations of each machine e. The casino operator can choose which EPROM chip to install in any particular machine to select the payout desired.

The result is that there is not really such a thing as a high payback type of machine, since every machine potentially has multiple settings. From October to February , columnist Michael Shackleford obtained PAR sheets for five different nickel machines; four IGT games Austin Powers , Fortune Cookie , Leopard Spots and Wheel of Fortune and one game manufactured by WMS; Reel 'em In.

Without revealing the proprietary information, he developed a program that would allow him to determine with usually less than a dozen plays on each machine which EPROM chip was installed.

Then he did a survey of over machines in 70 different casinos in Las Vegas. He averaged the data, and assigned an average payback percentage to the machines in each casino. The resultant list was widely publicized for marketing purposes especially by the Palms casino which had the top ranking.

One reason that the slot machine is so profitable to a casino is that the player must play the high house edge and high payout wagers along with the low house edge and low payout wagers.

Other bets have a higher house edge, but the player is rewarded with a bigger win up to thirty times in craps. The player can choose what kind of wager he wants to make. A slot machine does not afford such an opportunity.

Theoretically, the operator could make these probabilities available, or allow the player to choose which one so that the player is free to make a choice.

However, no operator has ever enacted this strategy. Different machines have different maximum payouts, but without knowing the odds of getting the jackpot, there is no rational way to differentiate. In many markets where central monitoring and control systems are used to link machines for auditing and security purposes, usually in wide area networks of multiple venues and thousands of machines, player return must usually be changed from a central computer rather than at each machine.

A range of percentages is set in the game software and selected remotely. In , the Nevada Gaming Commission began working with Las Vegas casinos on technology that would allow the casino's management to change the game, the odds, and the payouts remotely. The change cannot be done instantaneously, but only after the selected machine has been idle for at least four minutes.

After the change is made, the machine must be locked to new players for four minutes and display an on-screen message informing potential players that a change is being made. Some varieties of slot machines can be linked together in a setup sometimes known as a "community" game.

The most basic form of this setup involves progressive jackpots that are shared between the bank of machines, but may include multiplayer bonuses and other features. In some cases multiple machines are linked across multiple casinos. In these cases, the machines may be owned by the manufacturer, who is responsible for paying the jackpot.

The casinos lease the machines rather than owning them outright. Casinos in New Jersey, Nevada, Louisiana, Arkansas, and South Dakota now offer multi-state progressive jackpots, which now offer bigger jackpot pools.

Mechanical slot machines and their coin acceptors were sometimes susceptible to cheating devices and other scams. One historical example involved spinning a coin with a short length of plastic wire. The weight and size of the coin would be accepted by the machine and credits would be granted.

However, the spin created by the plastic wire would cause the coin to exit through the reject chute into the payout tray. This particular scam has become obsolete due to improvements in newer slot machines. Another obsolete method of defeating slot machines was to use a light source to confuse the optical sensor used to count coins during payout.

Modern slot machines are controlled by EPROM computer chips and, in large casinos, coin acceptors have become obsolete in favor of bill acceptors. These machines and their bill acceptors are designed with advanced anti-cheating and anti-counterfeiting measures and are difficult to defraud.

Early computerized slot machines were sometimes defrauded through the use of cheating devices, such as the "slider", "monkey paw", "lightwand" and "the tongue". Skill stop buttons predated the Bally electromechanical slot machines of the s and s. They appeared on mechanical slot machines manufactured by Mills Novelty Co.

as early as the mid s. These machines had modified reel-stop arms, which allowed them to be released from the timing bar, earlier than in a normal play, simply by pressing the buttons on the front of the machine, located between each reel.

These enabled the player to stop each reel, allowing a degree of "skill" so as to satisfy the New Jersey gaming laws of the day which required that players were able to control the game in some way.

The original conversion was applied to approximately 50 late-model Bally slot machines. Because the typical machine stopped the reels automatically in less than 10 seconds, weights were added to the mechanical timers to prolong the automatic stopping of the reels.

By the time the New Jersey Alcoholic Beverages Commission ABC had approved the conversion for use in New Jersey arcades, the word was out and every other distributor began adding skill stops.

The machines were a huge hit on the Jersey Shore and the remaining unconverted Bally machines were destroyed as they had become instantly obsolete. In the United States, the public and private availability of slot machines is highly regulated by state governments.

Many states have established gaming control boards to regulate the possession and use of slot machines and other form of gaming. Nevada is the only state that has no significant restrictions against slot machines both for public and private use.

In New Jersey , slot machines are only allowed in hotel casinos operated in Atlantic City. Several states Indiana , Louisiana and Missouri allow slot machines as well as any casino-style gambling only on licensed riverboats or permanently anchored barges.

Since Hurricane Katrina , Mississippi has removed the requirement that casinos on the Gulf Coast operate on barges and now allows them on land along the shoreline. Delaware allows slot machines at three horse tracks; they are regulated by the state lottery commission.

In Wisconsin, bars and taverns are allowed to have up to five machines. These machines usually allow a player to either take a payout, or gamble it on a double-or-nothing "side game". The territory of Puerto Rico places significant restrictions on slot machine ownership, but the law is widely flouted and slot machines are common in bars and coffeeshops.

In regards to tribal casinos located on Native American reservations , slot machines played against the house and operating independently from a centralized computer system are classified as "Class III" gaming by the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act IGRA , and sometimes promoted as "Vegas-style" slot machines.

As a workaround, some casinos may operate slot machines as "Class II" games—a category that includes games where players play exclusively against at least one other opponent and not the house, such as bingo or any related games such as pull-tabs.

In these cases, the reels are an entertainment display with a pre-determined outcome based on a centralized game played against other players. Under the IGRA, Class II games are regulated by individual tribes and the National Indian Gaming Commission , and do not require any additional approval if the state already permits tribal gaming.

Some historical race wagering terminals operate in a similar manner, with the machines using slots as an entertainment display for outcomes paid using the parimutuel betting system, based on results of randomly-selected, previously-held horse races with the player able to view selected details about the race and adjust their picks before playing the credit, or otherwise use an auto-bet system.

Alaska , Arizona , Arkansas , Kentucky , Maine , Minnesota , Nevada , Ohio , Rhode Island , Texas , Utah , Virginia , and West Virginia place no restrictions on private ownership of slot machines. Conversely, in Connecticut , Hawaii , Nebraska , South Carolina , and Tennessee , private ownership of any slot machine is completely prohibited.

The remaining states allow slot machines of a certain age typically 25—30 years or slot machines manufactured before a specific date. The Government of Canada has minimal involvement in gambling beyond the Canadian Criminal Code.

In essence, the term "lottery scheme" used in the code means slot machines, bingo and table games normally associated with a casino. These fall under the jurisdiction of the province or territory without reference to the federal government; in practice, all Canadian provinces operate gaming boards that oversee lotteries, casinos and video lottery terminals under their jurisdiction.

OLG piloted a classification system for slot machines at the Grand River Raceway developed by University of Waterloo professor Kevin Harrigan, as part of its PlaySmart initiative for responsible gambling.

Inspired by nutrition labels on foods, they displayed metrics such as volatility and frequency of payouts.

In Ontario, 4 April saw the re-introduction of the online gambling market. This became possible when the Canadian Criminal Code was amended to allow single-event wagering August In Australia "Poker Machines" or "pokies" [39] are officially termed "gaming machines".

In Australia, gaming machines are a matter for state governments, so laws vary between states. Gaming machines are found in casinos approximately one in each major city , pubs and clubs in some states usually sports, social, or RSL clubs.

The first Australian state to legalize this style of gambling was New South Wales , when in they were made legal in all registered clubs in the state. There are suggestions that the proliferation of poker machines has led to increased levels of problem gambling ; however, the precise nature of this link is still open to research.

In the Australian Productivity Commission reported that nearly half Australia's gaming machines were in New South Wales. Australia ranks 8th in total number of gaming machines after Japan, U.

This primarily is because gaming machines have been legal in the state of New South Wales since ; over time, the number of machines has grown to 97, at December , including the Australian Capital Territory.

By way of comparison, the U. State of Nevada, which legalised gaming including slots several decades before N. This new law also banned machines with an automatic play option.

All gaming machines in Victoria have an information screen accessible to the user by pressing the "i key" button, showing the game rules, paytable, return to player percentage, and the top and bottom five combinations with their odds.

These combinations are stated to be played on a minimum bet usually 1 credit per line, with 1 line or reel played, although some newer machines do not have an option to play 1 line; some machines may only allow maximum lines to be played , excluding feature wins. Western Australia has the most restrictive regulations on electronic gaming machines in general, with the Crown Perth casino resort being the only venue allowed to operate them, [43] and banning slot machines with spinning reels entirely.

This policy had an extensive political history, reaffirmed by the Royal Commission into Gambling: [44]. Poker machine playing is a mindless, repetitive and insidious form of gambling which has many undesirable features. It requires no thought, no skill or social contact. The odds are never about winning.

Watching people playing the machines over long periods of time, the impressionistic evidence at least is that they are addictive to many people. Historically poker machines have been banned from Western Australia and we consider that, in the public interest, they should stay banned.

While Western Australian gaming machines are similar to the other states', they do not have spinning reels. Therefore, different animations are used in place of the spinning reels in order to display each game result. Nick Xenophon was elected on an independent No Pokies ticket in the South Australian Legislative Council at the South Australian state election on 2.

Independent candidate Andrew Wilkie , an anti-pokies campaigner, was elected to the Australian House of Representatives seat of Denison at the federal election. Wilkie was one of four crossbenchers who supported the Gillard Labor government following the hung parliament result.

Wilkie immediately began forging ties with Xenophon as soon as it was apparent that he was elected. When you put a coin in this machine, it falls into a transparent case. The bottom of the case is a movable shutter that is connected to a metal linkage, as you can see in the diagram.

Normally, the linkage holds the shutter closed. But when the machine hits the jackpot, the third stopper shifts the linkage up, opening the shutter so the coins fall out of the machine.

Each of the three discs has notches for each stop position of the reel. The notch for the jackpot stop is deeper than the other stops. Consequently, when the first reel lands on the jackpot stop, the first stopper moves farther to the left than it would for any other stopper. If the second reel stops on the jackpot as well, the second stopper also moves farther left.

Same goes for the third reel and stopper. But if only the second reel stops on the jackpot, the second stopper will not move all the way into the notch.

The first stopper has a catch that keeps the second stopper from moving past it. The second stopper, in turn, has a catch that holds the third stopper back. For the third stopper to lock all the way into the jackpot notch, then, the first and second reels would have to have landed on the jackpot image.

When this happens, the shutter opens to dump all of the coins that have been played since the last jackpot. Typically, slot machines will have more elaborate versions of this design in order to pay out partially on certain combinations of images and pay out completely on the jackpot combination.

In another popular system used in some electrical machines, the discs have a series of metal contacts attached to them. When the reels stop, one of the contacts engages a stationary contact wired to a circuit board.

In this way, every stop on each reel will close a different switch in the electrical system. Certain combinations of closed switches jackpot winners will configure the machine's electrical circuit to operate the payout mechanism.

A more advanced system uses photoelectric cells also known as photo diodes , devices that generate a current when exposed to light , to detect the position.

In this system, a series of holes are drilled through the rotating discs, all around their outer edges. The photo diode is positioned on one side of the disc, and a light source is positioned on the other side. As the disc turns, the light shines through the holes onto the photo diode.

The pattern of holes in the disc causes the photo diode to generate a similar pattern of pulses of electricity. Based on this pattern, an electronic circuit can determine the position of the reel. Newer slot machines use computers instead of gears.

We'll take a look at those next. Most modern slot machines are designed to look and feel like the old mechanical models, but they work on a completely different principle. The outcome of each pull is actually controlled by a central computer inside the machine, not by the motion of the reels.

The computer uses step motors to turn each reel and stop it at the predetermined point. Step motors are driven by short digital pulses of electricity controlled by the computer, rather than the fluctuating electrical current that drives an ordinary electric motor.

These pulses move the motor a set increment, or step, with great precision see Introduction To Step Motor Systems to find out more.

But even though the computer tells the reels where to stop, the games are not pre-programmed to pay out at a certain time. A random number generator at the heart of the computer ensures that each pull has an equal shot at hitting the jackpot.

Whenever the slot machine is turned on, the random number generator is spitting out whole numbers typically between 1 and several billion hundreds of times a second. The instant you pull the arm back or press the button , the computer records the next few numbers from the random number generator.

Then it feeds these numbers through a simple program to determine where the reels should stop. Computer systems have made slot machines a lot more adaptable. For example, players can now bet money straight from a credit account, rather than dropping coins in for every pull.

Players can also keep track of their wins and losses more easily, as can the casinos. The operation is also simpler in modern machines -- if they want to, players can simply press a button to play a game, rather than pull the handle.

One of the main advantages of the computer system for machine manufacturers is that they can easily configure how often the machine pays out how loose or tight it is.

In the next section, we'll see how the computer program can be configured to change the slot machine's odds of hitting the jackpot. In a modern slot machine, the odds of hitting a particular symbol or combination of symbols depends on how the virtual reel is set up.

As we saw in the last section, each stop on the actual reel may correspond to more than one stop on the virtual reel. Simply put, the odds of hitting a particular image on the actual reel depend on how many virtual stops correspond to the actual stop. In a typical weighted slot machine, the top jackpot stop the one with the highest-paying jackpot image for each reel corresponds to only one virtual stop.

This means that the chance of hitting the jackpot image on one reel is 1 in If all of the reels are set up the same way, the chances of hitting the jackpot image on all three reels is 1 in 64 3 , or , For machines with a bigger jackpot, the virtual reel may have many more stops.

This decreases the odds of winning that jackpot considerably. The losing blank stops above and below the jackpot image may correspond to more virtual stops than other images.

Consequently, a player is most likely to hit the blank stops right next to the winning stop. This creates the impression that they "just missed" the jackpot, which encourages them to keep gambling, even though the proximity of the actual stops is inconsequential.

A machine's program is carefully designed and tested to achieve a certain payback percentage. The payback percentage is the percentage of the money that is put in that is eventually paid out to the player.

With a payback percentage of 90, for example, the casino would take about 10 percent of all money put into the slot machine and give away the other 90 percent. With any payback percentage under a and they're all under , the casino wins over time. In most gambling jurisdictions, the law requires that payback percentages be above a certain level usually somewhere around 75 percent.

The payback percentage in most casino machines is much higher than the minimum -- often in the to percent range. Casinos don't want their machines to be a lot tighter than their competitors' machines or the players will take their business elsewhere. The odds for a particular slot machine are built into the program on the machine's computer chip.

In most cases, the casino cannot change the odds on a machine without replacing this chip. Despite popular opinion, there is no way for the casino to instantly "tighten up" a machine.

Machines don't loosen up on their own either. That is, they aren't more likely to pay the longer you play. Since the computer always pulls up new random numbers, you have exactly the same chance of hitting the jackpot every single time you pull the handle. The idea that a machine can be "ready to pay" is all in the player's head, at least in the standard system.

When you hit the slot machines in a casino, you'll have dozens of gaming options. Machines come with varying numbers of reels , for example, and many have multiple pay lines. Most machines with multiple pay lines let players choose how many lines to play.

For the minimum bet, only the single line running straight across the reels counts. If the player puts more money in, he or she can play the additional horizontal lines above and below the main pay line or the diagonal lines running across the reels.

For machines with multiple bet options, whether they have multiple pay lines or not, players will usually be eligible for the maximum jackpot only when they make the maximum bet.

For this reason, gambling experts suggest that players always bet the maximum. There are several different payout schemes in modern slot machines. A standard flat top or straight slot machine has a set payout amount that never changes. The jackpot payout in a progressive machine, on the other hand, steadily increases as players put more money into it, until somebody wins it all and the jackpot is reset to a starting value.

In one common progressive setup, multiple machines are linked together in one computer system. The money put into each machine contributes to the central jackpot. In some giant progressive games, machines are linked up from different casinos all across a city or even a state.

Some slot-machine variations are simply aesthetic. Video slots operate the same way as regular machines, but they have a video image rather than actual rotating reels. When these games first came out, players were very distrustful of them; without the spinning reels, it seemed like the games were rigged.

Even though the reels and handles in modern machines are completely irrelevant to the outcome of the game, manufacturers usually include them just to give players the illusion of control.

These are only a few of today's popular slot variations. Game manufacturers continue to develop new sorts of machines with interesting twists on the classic game. A lot of these variations are built around particular themes.

There are now slot games based on television shows, poker , craps and horse racing, just to name a few. To learn more about modern slot machines, including strategies to increase your chances of winning, check out the links on the next page.

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Casino Slot machines for sale, IGT, Williams, Bally available. Poker machines, video bonus machines, keno machines, multi game machines Slot machines are a popular form of gambling. Learn about modern slot machines and old mechanical models and find out the odds of winning on slot machines Most modern ones are, yes. When you spin a modern slot machine, it generates a random number for each reel to figure out which symbol to show. A

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How to Play Playing Modern Slots is straightforward and intuitive. Tips and Tricks To optimize your gaming experience in Modern Slots, always keep an eye on your credits balance.

Features Five Different Slot Machines: Offering a variety of themes and gameplay mechanics. Intriguing Graphics: Graphics that are both sharp and colorful, providing a captivating gaming experience.

User-Friendly Interface: Smooth controls for easy navigation through the game. Risk-Free Gambling: All the thrill of casino slots without any real-world financial risks.

What are the best online games? Solitaire Minesweeper Mahjong Shell Shockers Smash Karts Dino Game 1v1. A stepper motor is an electromechanical device that uses electrical pulses to drive a shaft or spindle in discrete increments. These incremental movements are related to the frequency and sequence of the electrical pulses, allowing for total movement control [6].

If the machine only has a screen, then a piece of software animates a virtual spinning reel. One of the most intriguing developments in slot technology involves connecting slots to servers, much as office computer networks are designed.

This innovation would allow casinos to easily manage minimum bets, percentages paid, and the type of game available on a machine. These networks will also allow different games to be recommended for different players as well as the streaming of live television to built-in screens.

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Home Articles About Us Contact. Computer Science Entertainment Most Popular. Gambling is a billion dollar industry that attracts millions of people around the world. While familiar in appearance, these devices are a mystery to the layperson. The design of slot machines has evolved from mobile mechanical parts to mostly electronic components over the course of the last century, but their charm and attraction remain strong.

With the advent of computer servers and live streaming of data, slot machines are poised to intrigue and befuddle a new generation of gamblers hoping to hit the jackpot. The gambling industry brings in billions of dollars every year all over the world.

Places such as Las Vegas and Monte Carlo have built their reputations on gambling establishments with hundreds of games ranging from poker to electronic horse racing and with all kinds of luxurious accoutrements from flashy shows to nightclubs. More often than not, they leave having lost more money than they have won, but having enjoyed the experience nonetheless.

Since its introduction in , the most popular form of gambling has been the slot machine. Slots are simple, giving rewards when the correct combination of symbols has surfaced. They rarely cost more than five dollars and require only the push of a button or the pull of a handle to play.

Flashing lights, exciting sounds, and large grand prizes entice players who hope to strike it rich. Because they do not require skill or practice to play, these machines give everyone the chance to win.

Various models of slot machines are in use today, but the most popular contains a combination of electronic and mechanical parts. Using the fundamentals of probability, slots are uniquely engineered to appear simple while disguising their true inner workings from the public.

The slot machine combines engineering acumen, mathematical know-how, and psychological deceit in a single, attractive package. In San Francisco in , Gustav F. Schultze invented a small countertop gambling machine to capitalize on the strong gambling tendencies that resulted from the Gold Rush.

This device accepted a nickel, which caused a colored disk to begin spinning. After the disk stopped, a connected star wheel determined the payout. A slide then cut the correct number of coins and dropped them into a payout cup.

The idea that a machine can be "ready to pay" is all in the player's head, at least in the standard system. When you hit the slot machines in a casino, you'll have dozens of gaming options. Machines come with varying numbers of reels , for example, and many have multiple pay lines.

Most machines with multiple pay lines let players choose how many lines to play. For the minimum bet, only the single line running straight across the reels counts. If the player puts more money in, he or she can play the additional horizontal lines above and below the main pay line or the diagonal lines running across the reels.

For machines with multiple bet options, whether they have multiple pay lines or not, players will usually be eligible for the maximum jackpot only when they make the maximum bet. For this reason, gambling experts suggest that players always bet the maximum.

There are several different payout schemes in modern slot machines. A standard flat top or straight slot machine has a set payout amount that never changes. The jackpot payout in a progressive machine, on the other hand, steadily increases as players put more money into it, until somebody wins it all and the jackpot is reset to a starting value.

In one common progressive setup, multiple machines are linked together in one computer system. The money put into each machine contributes to the central jackpot.

In some giant progressive games, machines are linked up from different casinos all across a city or even a state. Some slot-machine variations are simply aesthetic. Video slots operate the same way as regular machines, but they have a video image rather than actual rotating reels.

When these games first came out, players were very distrustful of them; without the spinning reels, it seemed like the games were rigged.

Even though the reels and handles in modern machines are completely irrelevant to the outcome of the game, manufacturers usually include them just to give players the illusion of control. These are only a few of today's popular slot variations. Game manufacturers continue to develop new sorts of machines with interesting twists on the classic game.

A lot of these variations are built around particular themes. There are now slot games based on television shows, poker , craps and horse racing, just to name a few.

To learn more about modern slot machines, including strategies to increase your chances of winning, check out the links on the next page. com article:. Sign up for our Newsletter! Mobile Newsletter banner close.

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Contents Pulling the Handle Payout Computerized Slot Machines What are the Odds? Pulling the Handle A series of events takes place after a person pulls the handle on a slot machine. Here's a rundown: The handle rotates a hook mechanism, which grabs hold of the kicker, pulling it forward toward the player.

A catch on the opposite end of the kicker grabs a control cam piece and pivots it forward. This rotates a series of gears connected to the control cam. A spring pulls the control cam back to its original position, but the gear assembly slows it down considerably -- the gears act as a mechanical delay.

When the control cam is pivoted forward, it releases a spring-mounted cam plate extending across the back of the machine. The control cam also pulls the stoppers away from the notched discs.

As the kicker keeps moving, it pushes the stoppers against several catches on the cam plate. These hold the stoppers in place, so the discs and reels can rotate freely.

As the handle continues to move the kicker, the kicker paddles push the discs forward briefly. When the handle is pulled all the way back and the kicker has passed the discs, the bottom of the hook mechanism moves up against a slanted surface.

The slant pivots the hook forward, which causes it to release the kicker. The kicker spring jerks the kicker backward at a good speed. The kicker paddles hit the notches on the discs, spinning the reels rapidly.

While all of this is happening, the control cam is slowly returning to its original position. When it does return, it pushes the cam plate back, which releases the stoppers.

The different catches holding onto the different stoppers are positioned so that the cam plate will release the stoppers one at a time. Each stopper springs forward and locks into a notch, holding the reel in position. Payout There are dozens of different payout systems used in slot machines.

Computerized Slot Machines " ". You pull the handle, and the computer records the next three numbers from the random number generator. The first number is used to determine the position of the first reel, the second number is used for the second reel and the third number is used for the third reel.

For this example, let's say the first number is ,, To determine the position of the first reel, the computer divides the first random number by a set value. Typically, slot machines divide by 32, 64,, or In this example, we'll say the computer divides by

How Slot Machines Work Slots are random nfl lines week unpredictable and modern slot machines almost no kachines while offering modwrn jackpot prizes. Delaware allows slot machines mahines modern slot machines horse tracks; they are regulated by ,odern state moern commission. Free spins are a common form of bonus, where a series of spins are automatically played at no charge at the player's current wager. The truth is, yes — casinos can control a slot machine or rig it only to give players small wins. If the machine only has a screen, then a piece of software animates a virtual spinning reel.

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